ujung kulon National park
Ujung Kulon National Park
Ujung Kulon National Park is the first national park, founded in Indonesia. The park (80,000 ha) lies on a peninsula in south-west Java and includes the islands Pulau Peucang, Pulau Panaitan and the Krakatau archipelago. On 1 February, 1992, the Proposed Ujung Kulon National Park complex and the Krakatau Islands Nature Reserve were declared a World Heritage Site. The borders on the north, south and west side of Ujung Kulon are made up by the Indian Ocean. The Honje mountain range, including the highest point of the park Gunung Honje (620 m), forms the eastern border. The Indian Ocean is the main access route. It includes the volcanic island group of Krakatoa and other islands including Handeuleum and Peucang. The park encompasses an area of 1,206 km² (443 km² marine), most of which lies on a peninsula reaching into the Indian Ocean.
This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat.
Ujung Kulon has large tracts of undisturbed lowland rainforest, swamps and beaches. Because it is protected on three sides by sea, and on the fourth by the Honje mountains, it has provided a refuge for wildlife, some of which are now rare in the rest of heavily populated Java (population: over 100 million). And it has always been of extremely high conservation value and contains several species of endangered or threatened animals. Oriental small-clawed otters, hornbills, leopards, Asian wild dogs, Javan leaf monkeys, crocodiles, green peafowl, Javan gibbons, Javan warty pigs, green turtles, milky storks and Banteng wild cattle all make their homes here. In total, over 350 species of animals and 250 species of birds have so far been recorded here.
The most important resident of the park is the Javan or Lesser One-horned rhinoceros. This is the most endangered large mammal in the world and only two wild populations remain (there are no Javan rhinoceros in captivity). Ujung Kulon contains 50-60 animals while Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam has another 10-15 with different physical characteristics. The two subspecies used to be common over India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Sumatra and Java.
Single-horned Rhinoceros Habitats in the park consists of lowland rainforest, swamp, mangrove and beach forest. Vegetation on Pulau Panaitan consists of dry-beach forest, mangrove forest and lowland rain forest which is characterized by an abundance of palms. On Anak Krakatau, the island that came into existence after the Krakatau exploded, flora and fauna are still young. Small animals and birds gradually colonize the lava island. The principal flora consists of grasslands, beach forest, lowland rain forest and moss forests at the higher altitudes. The most important reason to declare Ujung Kulon a National Park is the existence of the almost-extinct Javan Rhinoceroses in the area. The population of these extremely endangered animals in Ujung Kulon is estimated to be 50-60.
Ujung Kulon National Park is located at the western-most tip of Java-Indonesia. It includes the Panaitan island, Handeuleum island and Peucang island. The park encompasses an area of 1,206 km² (443 km² marine), most of which lies on a peninsula reaching into the Indian Ocean. The explosion of nearby Krakatau in 1883 produced a tidal wave that eliminated the villages and crops of the coastal areas on the western peninsula, and covered the entire area in a layer of ash about 30 cm thick. This caused the total evacuation of the peninsula by humans, thereby allowing it to become a repository for much of Java’s flora and fauna, and most of the remaining lowland forest on the island. Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park in 1930.
It is Indonesia’s first proposed national park and was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991 for containing the largest remaining lowland rain forest in Java. It is also one of only two homes of the critically endangered Javan Rhinoceros. A population of fifty to sixty live in Ujung Kulon, a smaller population of possibly 10 or less, live in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. The park protects 57 rare species of plant. The 35 species of mammal include Banteng (Wild bull), Silvery Gibbon, Javan Lutung Black monkey) Crab-eating Macaque, Leopard, Java Mouse-deer and Rusa (Deer). There are also 72 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 240 species of birds.
The park 120,551 hectares are divided into 76,214ha. of land and 44,337 ha. Of surrounding be separated into three areas:-the triangular shaped Ujung Kulon peninsula, the Gunung Honje range to the east of the peninsula isthmus and the island of Panaitan to the north west.
Ujung Kulon National park is one of the last remaining Natural forest in java and one of very few areas offering a profile of sea-shore to mountain top tropical vegetation. The park holds well over 700 species of plant life of which at least 57 are classified as rare in java, and perhaps The world.